Piracetam is a nootropic agent which due to a direct effect on the brain improves cognitive (cognitive) processes, such as learning ability, memory, attention, and enhances mental performance. Piracetam affects the central nervous system in different ways: influencing the speed of propagation of excitation in the brain, durabolin side effects improving metabolic processes in the nerve cells and improving microcirculation hemorheology, without causing vasodilating action. Piracetam inhibits platelet aggregation and restores erythrocyte membrane elasticity and reduces the adhesion of erythrocytes. At a dose of 9.6 g reduces levels of fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor by 30-40% and increases bleeding time. Piracetam has a protective and restorative action in violation of brain function due to hypoxia and intoxication, reduces the severity and duration of vestibular nystagmus.
The maximum drug concentration after intravenous injection is achieved in the blood after 30 minutes, and cerebrospinal fluid – 5 hours, amounting to 40-60 ug / ml. The volume of distribution of piracetam is almost 0.6 l / kg. The half-life of the plasma is 5.4 hours, and of cerebrospinal fluid -. 8.5 h It binds to plasma proteins and is not metabolized in the body. 80-100% piracetam derived kidneys unchanged by renal filtration. Renal clearance of piracetam is 86 ml / min.
Pharmacokinetics unchanged in patients with hepatic failure.
Piracetam penetrates the blood-brain, the blood-barrier and membranes used in hemodialysis. In animal studies, piracetam selectively accumulate in the tissues of the cerebral cortex (especially frontal, parietal and occipital lobes), in the cerebellum and basal ganglia.
Indications for use:
Piracetam is used in neurological, psychiatric and drug treatment practice.
In neurological practice durabolin side effects is used primarily for vascular brain diseases (atherosclerosis, vascular parksinsonizm) with symptoms of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, which manifests itself in impaired memory, attention, speech, dizziness, and headache; residual effects of cerebral blood flow (ischemic type); comatose state and subkomatoznye (including after injuries and cerebral intoxication);convalescence (for improving motor and mental activity); nervous system diseases associated with decreased intellectual-mental function and impaired emotional and volitional (including Alzheimer’s disease), metabolic myopathies, neuromuscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease, the effects of traumatic brain injury (long-lasting headache and dizziness).
In psychiatric practice Piracetam is used in patients with neurological depressive states of various origins with a predominance in the clinical signs adinamii, asthenia and senesto-hypochondriacal disorders, phenomena ideatornoy retardation, as well as in the treatment of sluggish – apathetic defect states, senile and atrophic processes in the treatment of mental illness, occurring at “organically deficient soil.”Furthermore, Piracetam is used as an adjunct in the treatment of depressive illness resistant to treatment with antidepressants and neuroleptics in poor portability and other psychotropic drugs in order to eliminate or prevent somatovegetativnyh caused by them, neurological or psychiatric complications cortical myoclonus.
The drug used in the practice of the drug as a treatment for abstinence, pre – and delirious states in alcoholism and drug addiction, as well as in cases of acute alcohol poisoning, morphine, barbiturates, amphetamine and etc. In addition, Piracetam is used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism with symptoms of persistent violations of mental activity (asthenia, intellectually – mnemonic disorders, muscle tremors, sweating, hallucinations).
In pediatric practice Piracetam is used to correct the effects of perinatal brain damage caused by intrauterine infections, hypoxia, birth trauma, with mental retardation, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, if necessary, to speed up the learning process.
Paracetamol is also used for long-term general anesthesia (anoxia and hypoxia prevention of the brain) and sickle-cell anemia (in combination therapy).
Hypersensitivity to the components included in the composition of the drug, severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance (CC) of less than 20 ml / min), children’s age (up to 1 year), hemorrhagic stroke, psychomotor agitation.
The drug is prescribed for disorders of hemostasis, major surgical intervention, severe bleeding during pregnancy and lactation.
Dosage and administration:
The drug is administered intramuscularly or intravenously.
The use of piracetam in adults:
In the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders in the acute phase of the drug should be administered as soon as possible, at a dose of 12 g / day for 2 weeks, followed by 4.8-6 g / day.
When cortical myoclonus, durabolin side effects treatment is initiated with a dose 7.2 g / day every 3-4 days to increase the dose of 4.8 g / lpg to a maximum dose of 24 g / day 2-3 times daily, orally or parenterally. Every 6 months should reduce the dose of 1.2 g every 2 days.
In sickle cell anemia, daily dose – 160 mg / kg, divided into 4 equal portions. In a time of crisis – to 300 mg / kg.
When alcoholism – 12 g / day during the manifestation syndrome of “cancellation” of ethanol; maintenance dose – 2.4 g
In the treatment of coma, posttraumatic period in the initial dose – 9-12 g / day maintenance – 2,4 g, a course of treatment – 3 weeks.
In patients with renal insufficiency dose correcting in accordance with the data given in the table: